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Title: Craniovascular variation in four late Holocene human samples from southern South America
Authors: Eisová, Stanislava
Menéndez, Lumila Paula
Velemínský, Petr
Bruner, Emiliano
Keywords: Artificial cranial deformation;Cranial morphology;Craniovascular traits;Late Holocene;South Americans;Vascular anatomy
Issue Date: Jan-2023
Publisher: Wiley
Citation: The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, 2023, 306(1), 143-161
Abstract: Craniovascular traits in the endocranium (traces of middle meningeal vessels and dural venous sinuses, emissary foramina) provide evidence of vascular anatomy in osteological samples. We investigate the craniovascular variation in four South American samples and the effect of artificial cranial modifications (ACM). CT scans of human adult crania from four archeological samples from southern South America (including skulls with ACM) are used for the analyses. The craniovascular features in the four samples are described, skulls with and without ACM are compared, and additionally, South Americans are compared to a previously analyzed sample of Europeans. Of the four South American samples, the Southern Patagonian differs the most, showing the most distinct cranial dimensions, no ACM, and larger diameters of the emissary foramina. Unlike previous studies, we did not find any major differences in craniovascular features between modified and non-modified skulls, except that the skulls with ACM present somewhat smaller foramina. South Americans significantly differed from Europeans, especially in the anteroposterior dominance of the middle meningeal artery, in the pattern of sinus confluence, in the occurrence of enlarged occipito-marginal sinuses, and in foramina frequencies and diameters. Craniovascular morphology is not affected by the cranial size, even in skulls with ACM, indicating a minor or null influence of structural topological factors. Concerning the samples from distinct geographic and climatic environments, it must be evaluated whether the craniovascular morphogenesis might be partially influenced by specific functions possibly associated with thermoregulation, intracranial pressure, and the maintenance of intracranial homeostasis.
ISSN: 1932-8494
DOI: 10.1002/ar.25017
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Type: Article
Appears in Collections:Paleobiología

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