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Title: The human remains from Axlor (Dima, Biscay, northern Iberian Peninsula)
Authors: Gómez-Olivencia, Azier
López‐Onaindia, Diego
Sala, Nohemi
Balzeau, Antoine
Pantoja-Pérez, Ana
Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio
Arlegi, Mikel
Ríos Garaizar, Joseba
Gómez-Robles, Aida
Keywords: Homo sapiens;Enamel-dentine junction;Geometric morphometrics;Neandertal;Paleolithic
Issue Date: Jul-2020
Publisher: Wiley
Citation: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2020, 172 (3), 475-491
Abstract: Objectives: We provide the description and comparative analysis of all the human fossil remains found at Axlor during the excavations carried out by J. M. de Barandiarán from 1967 to 1974: a cranial vault fragment and seven teeth, five of which likely belonged to the same individual, although two are currently lost. Our goal is to describe in detail all these human remains and discuss both their taxonomic attribution and their stratigraphic context. Materials and methods: We describe external and internal anatomy, and use classic and geometric morphometrics. The teeth from Axlor are compared to Neandertals, Upper Paleolithic, and recent modern humans. Results: Two teeth (a left dm2, a left di1) and the parietal fragment show morphological features consistent with a Neandertal classification, and were found in an undisturbed Mousterian context. The remaining three teeth (plus the two lost ones), initially classified as Neandertals, show morphological features and a general size that are more compatible with their classification as modern humans. Discussion: A left parietal fragment (Level VIII) from a single probably adult Neandertal individual was recovered during the old excavations performed by Barandiarán. Additionally, two different Neandertal children lost deciduous teeth during the formations of levels V (left di1) and IV (right dm2). In addition, a modern human individual is represented by five remains (two currently lost) from a complex stratigraphic setting. Some of the morphological features of these remains suggest that they may represent one of the scarce examples of Upper Paleolithic modern human remains in the northern Iberian Peninsula, which should be confirmed by direct dating.
ISSN: 0002-9483
DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23989
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Type: Article
Appears in Collections:Arqueología
Microscopía y Microtomografía Computarizada

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