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Title: Application of inductively coupled plasma spectrometric techniques and multivariate statistical analysis in the hydrogeochemical profiling of caves—Case study Cloșani, Romania
Authors: Torok, Anamaria Iulia
Levei, Erika Andrea
Constantin, Silviu
Moldovan, Oana Teodora
Senila, Marin
Cadar, Oana
Casoni, Dorina
Angyus, Simion Bogdan
Tanaselia, Claudiu
Covaci, Eniko
Frentiu, Tiberiu
Keywords: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry;Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry;Rare earth element;Multivariate statistical analysis;Principal component analysis;Two-way joining analysis;Hydrogeochemical profile;Cave;Water;Soil
Issue Date: Nov-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Molecules, 2021, 26 (22), 6788
Abstract: The aim of the study was to develop the hydrogeochemical profiling of caves based on the elemental composition of water and silty soil samples and a multivariate statistical analysis. Major and trace elements, including rare earths, were determined in the water and soil samples. The general characteristics of water, anions content, inorganic and organic carbon fractions and nitrogen species (NO3− and NH4+) were also considered. The ANOVA—principal component analysis (PCA) and two-way joining analysis were applied on samples collected from Cloșani Cave, Romania. The ANOVA-PCA revealed that the hydrogeochemical characteristics of Ca2+-HCO3− water facies were described by five factors, the strongest being associated with water-carbonate rock interactions and the occurrence of Ca, Mg and HCO3− (43.4%). Although organic carbon fractions have a lower influence (20.1%) than inorganic ones on water characteristics, they are involved in the chemical processes of nitrogen and of the elements involved in redox processes (Fe, Mn, Cr and Sn). The seasonal variability of water characteristics, especially during the spring, was observed. The variability of silty soil samples was described by four principal components, the strongest influence being attributed to rare earth elements (52.2%). The ANOVA-PCA provided deeper information compared to Gibbs and Piper diagrams and the correlation analysis.
ISSN: 1420-3049
DOI: 10.3390/molecules26226788
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Type: Article
Appears in Collections:Geocronología y Geología

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